A Dictionary with a count

The most interesting type in Lua is the table object. The table serves dual purposes. It can act as an array, as well as a hash table. As a dictionary, you can do simple things like:

local tbl = {}
tbl["alpha"] = "alpha-value"

The problem with this construction is that you can not easily find out the number of items that are within the dictionary. The easiest way is to enumerate the whole thing, and keep a count:

local count = 0;
for k,v in pairs(tbl) do
  count = count + 1;

And so, what I really want is something that acts as a simple dictionary, but gives me the ability to easily find the count. I’ve created the “Bag”, which is simply a wrapper on a table, but it gives you a count.

local Bag = {}
setmetatable(Bag, {
	__call = function(self, ...)
		return self:_new(...);

local Bag_mt = {
	__index = function(self, key)
		--print("__index: ", key)
		return self.tbl[key]

	__newindex = function(self, key, value)		
		--print("__newindex: ", key, value)
		if value == nil then
			self.__Count = self.__Count - 1;
			self.__Count = self.__Count + 1;

		--rawset(self, key, value)
		self.tbl[key] = value;

	__len = function(self)
--		print("__len: ", self.__Count)
		return self.__Count;

function Bag._new(self, obj)
	local obj = {
		tbl = {},
		__Count = 0,

	setmetatable(obj, Bag_mt);

	return obj;

Each Bag instance has a ‘tbl’ and a ‘__Count’. Within the metastable, both the ‘__newindex’ and the ‘__index’ are implemented. The ‘__newindex’ is used when you make an assignment. So, when I do:

tbl["alpha"] = "alpha-value"

The ‘__newindex’ is called. This will in turn simply put the value into the self.tbl table. While it does that, it also increments the count of values that are stored in the Bag. When you assign “nil” to an entry, this will remove it from the underlying table, and thus decrement the count.

Then there’s the ‘__len’ metamethod. This will normally return the length of an item. In the case of regular tables, as long as they are being used as arrays (contiguous indices), then it will return the number of items. In the case of a regular table being used as a dictionary, it will return 0. So, implementing it here gives the Bag the ability to use the convenient ‘#’ operator.

local Collections = require("Collections")

local names = {
	alpha = "alpha-value";
	beta = "beta-value";
	gamma = "gamma-value";

local bg = Collections.Bag();

for k,v in pairs(names) do
	print("adding: ", k, v)
	bg[k] = v;

print("Count after add: ", #bg)

bg["gamma"] = nil;

print("Count, after 1 remove: ", #bg)

print("beta: ", bg["beta"])

Lua 5.1 will not utilize the ‘__len’ metamethod, only 5.2 will do that. So, with LuaJIT, which is half way between the two, you need to make sure you compile with the -DLUAJIT_ENABLE_LUA52COMPAT flag, or you won’t get the expected behavior.

This is great, and achieves what I wanted. But, I still want it to act as a dictionary in terms of being iterable, so I should implement a __pairs metamethod, but that can wait.

So, there you have it. A quick and dirty improvement upon tables which saves me the headache and wasted CPU cycles of counting my dictionary entries.

There are many situations where I am using a simple dictionary, but I want to quickly find the count of items in the dictionary